Weight correction

cHITosan of the Season
New Year holidays are approaching and that is the time when one wants to look especially slim and attractive. We know a sure means to achieve that. It comes from the ocean depths and is contained in capsules of the new Vision bioactive food supplement, KG-Off. It is chitosan.
If you had good marks in chemistry and biology at school, you should be familiar with the word "chitin" (from Ancient Greek khitōn meaning tunic, clothing, shell). This substance is the main material in crustacea shells and in external skeletons of many insects. Due to being cemented with a carbon compound called acyl this "clothing" of Arthropoda species is especially tough and reliably protects them against the environmental hazards. In the early 19th century French scientists separated chitin from acyl and obtained in a pure form the new substance named chitosan that is water-soluble.
Since then a lot of fundamental research on that new natural polymer has been done that showed sensational results. Works of three Nobel Prize winners dealt with chitosan – in 1903, 1929 and 1939. These days the subject is widely covered in scientific journals, it is actively discussed at world and European conferences, Asian-Pacific symposiums, there is the European Chitin Society (EUCHIS). Initially chitin and its derivatives were of interest to biologists, then – to organic chemists, and those substances attracted the closest attention of the world medicine.
The fact that chitin shells of marine animals make the human body healthier was noticed by the famous long-livers, Japanese, long ago.
They traditionally consume chitin and chitosan with their food. In Europe and America chitosan included in food supplements became popular after its beneficial properties had been proven in experiments and got known all over the world. The main sensational discovery by physicians was that being a powerful natural sorbent chitosan helps to control weight and aids in reducing it. How does it act?
Chitosan obtainable from crustacea shells is a natural source of dietary fibers (cellular tissue) without any known counterparts. Because dietary fibers are not digested in the stomach and intestines, they had for a long time been considered useless ballast. So the refined, easily digested foods had been highly valued. But researchers proved that the foods beneficial for health should necessarily contain some "indigestible" elements. If they are in short supply, they should even be taken separately.
Chitosan is not just a source of cellular tissue but a unique biological filter. It belongs to the so-called enterosorbent group (from Latin sorbeo – I absorb), the substances capable of absorbing harmful substances and evacuating them from the organism. Unlike the plant cellular tissue and other sorbents of the natural origin chitosan acts more efficiently thanks to its unique molecular structure. Its positively charged particles get combined with negatively charged groups of fatty acid triglycerides right in the digestive system – prior to their digestion. In other words, this natural polysaccharide, as it gets into the organism, "attracts" fats and lipids, binds them making them inaccessible for digestion and evacuates them from the organism, thus preventing formation of fat deposits. Some researchers call chitosan the "magnet for fats": a single molecule of it is able to bind the molecules of fat weighing 4-8 times more than itself.
Since chitosan is not digested, it is an inert substance as concerns the nutrition, in other words, it contains no calories. It is important that drawing fat from the food intensifies the energy generation process in the fat deposits already existing and so helps in reducing the body weight and in making the figure correction possible without any muscular strength loss.
So, thanks to the new Vision biologically active food supplement it is possible to slim down efficiently and with the maximum comfort. If you take KG-Off capsules on your vacation, never fear tasting the exotic local cuisine or worry about your summer attire becoming too tight. It is important that, unlike other strong preparations that "roughly" invade the lipometabolism, chitosan regulates the metabolism gently, helps in reducing the body weight without any strict diets and hazards to health. Moreover, chitosan by itself prevents quite a number of diseases.

8 additional arguments in favor of chitosan

1. Reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases.
First of all, chitosan lowers the cholesterol level. Being positively charged chemically chitosan oligomers get combined with the negatively charged cholesterol (low-density lipoproteins) the excess of which causes atherosclerosis. In addition, chitosan gets combined with the bile acid and evacuates it from the organism as well - it is the bile acid that aids the cholesterol absorbtion into blood.
Proven in experimentsPreliminary results of testing food supplements with chitosan in Norway show that for the people taking chitosan daily for 8 weeks (in addition to their individual diets) the cholesterol level in blood dropped by almost 25%.Second, chitosan reduces the arterial blood pressure. It is well known that common salt (NaCl) can be a reason for the blood pressure rise. This occurs because chlorine ions activate the inert ferment called angiotensin that, in its turn, provokes an acute vessel spasm. Chitosan (as a positive ion) interacts with chlorides (negative ions), lowers their concentration and thus prevents the angiotensin formation.
Third, the chitosan derivatives have a clear antioxidizing effect and significantly reduce the free radical aggression that helps in cleaning and strengthening the blood vessel walls and in making the cardiovascular system healthier as a whole.
2. Detoxing the organism.
British physicians call chitosan "the scavenger" for good reasons. Chitosan is a unique biological filter and belongs to the so-called enterosorbent group (from Latin sorbeo – I absorb), the substances capable of absorbing harmful substances and evacuating them from the organism. In the nature the animal "chitin cover" is not just tough but also serves as a reliable barrier for all kinds of toxins. So chitosan is capable of removing from the organism salts of heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), carcinogens provoking the cancer development, toxins – particularly in cases of the alcohol, food and medication intoxications, radionuclides and other foreign compounds that can accumulate for years and gradually "poison" the organism. Just like water-purifying filters block harmful admixtures, chitosan plays a similar role in intestines, in blood, in lymph. That is why one can find chitin pills in first-aid kits in some armed forces – they are useful in cases of exposure to hazardous radiation.
Sometimes the enterosorption is considered a treatment procedure on its own that significantly improves the physical condition and alters the progress of many diseases for the better. It is assumed that chitosan enhances the drainage action (cleaning ability) of the lymphatic system that, in the opinion of physicians, is the main location for the toxic substance accumulation and that is most hard to detox.
Chitosan has advantages over other enterosorbents (for instance, the activated charcoal and china clay) which can cause serious side effects, such as absorbing important nutrients, vitamins and calcium. Chitosan, in contrast, enriches the organism with bioavailable easy-to-digest calcium, the basis for the bone tissue. In this way osteoporosis is prevented as well as calcium metabolism disorders and also bones and teeth are strengthened.

Proven in experimentsIn 2001 an interesting experiment was carried out in agriculture. One part of a harvest was being grown with chemical protective means (pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides) replaced with chitosan protection by adding it to the soil and spraying on leaves. Afterwards researchers compared the vegetables thus grown with regular ones from local farms. It turned out that the vegetables in the experimental group had better manifested antioxidizing properties - by 50% up to 120%, twice as effectively protected the human organism against carcinogens and contained 2 up to 10 times as much beneficial flavonoids.Not long ago they started using chitosan for making food-grade wrapping films. They were developed for preventing dampness, for retarding the harmful bacterial formations and for increasing the shelf life of perishable produce, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. The research has demonstrated that at storing fresh strawberries in the chitosan-containing film their shelf life increased from 1 to 5 and even more days. Cucumbers, melons and other produce usually vulnerable to molding fared much better in the chitosan-containing film. In the Western Regional Research Center of the US Department of Agriculture in Albany, California, apples wrapped in the chitosan-containing film and left in cold storage remained fresh for over six months, since the wrapping prevented their oxidation and the apples never grew darker.
3. Normalizing the digestive tract action.
This curative property of chitosan logically follows from its sorption abilities: the absorbing and evacuating from intestines of harmful substances, bacteria, viruses and allergens helps in maintaining the normal digestive tract microflora, in reducing the gastric juice acidity, in enhancing the intestinal peristalsis and in avoiding the dysbacteriosis. Physicians especially single out the chitosan role in increasing the numbers of beneficial bifidobacteria. Clinical and laboratory tests show that the bifidobacteria shortage can cause premature ageing, lower the immunity and provoke oncological diseases. Some manufacturers add live bifidobacteria to their food products but the modern production technologies often reduce the efficiency of bifidobacteria to nothing. So, doctors believe that a more effective way is to add nominal amounts of oligosaccharides (including chitosan) directly to food as supplements.
In addition, chitosan improves the metabolism in pancreas and liver, optimizes their functions and thus prevents any dyskinesis of bile passages and the large intestine.

Proven in experimentsKorean researcher Yun Shon has proven that chitosan oligosaccharides are capable of protecting against dioxin, a well-known poison. With the chitosan intake the liver cells grew more resilient to the damage due to the increased activity of protective ferments. In a control group of animals not protected with chitosan the acute body mass loss overall and the liver mass loss in particular was observed while with using a chitosan supplement those figures remained normal.
4. Preventing pancreatic diabetes.Japanese researchers found out that the chitosan oligomers lower the sugar level in blood and "open up" receptors on the cell surface, due to which the organism cell sensitivity to insulin is increased. This is a very important factor in treating type 2 diabetes. With the diabetes susceptibility taking preparations that contain chitosan allows to reduce the disease development risk.
5. Enhancing immunity.Many experiments with animals allow to assume that chitin and chitosan, its derivative, stimulate the nonspecific immune reaction: they intensify the synthesis of immunoglobulins and interferons, help in reproducing lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils – main elements of the immune system.
Japanese researchers discovered, in particular, that simultaneously with enhancing immunity chitosan acts as an antitumoral agent in several directions at once. First, it regulates the acid-base balance in tissues towards the alkalescent PH – about 7.35. It is with that PH level that lymphocytes start their phagocytic activity (capturing and digesting foreign cells). Second, the chitosan components absorbed into blood suppress the cancerous intoxication, restore appetite and prevent the cancerous cachexy – the acute weight loss by patients with malignant new growths. Third, chitosan prevents metastasis by adhering tightly to the blood vessel inner surfaces and blocking so-called conjugated molecules that help in transporting cancerous cells to other body organs. Finally, as mentioned above, chitosan has a pronounced effect on immunity and nonspecific organism protection factors.

Proven in experimentsIt has been proven that the rats on a chitosan diet survive by 20% longer after exposure to radiation, they weigh more and have better blood values (the leukocyte, erythrocyte and hemoglobin counts are restored faster). The study authors explained the results by the chitosan ability to neutralize the activity of free radicals that are formed at the radiation exposure.
6. Healing wounds.In medicine they began using the chitosan wound-healing effect successfully in the 1970's. It was established that this biopolymer can act as an antimicrobial agent and help in the tissue regeneration. The fact is that the chitosan components are close by their structures and properties to the human body tissues and cells, so they aid in "building" new cells and accelerate the damaged organ and tissue restoration without causing any allergic reactions in the process.
7. Making joints healthyThe chitosan oligomers are sources of glucosamine, the main building material for connective tissues. In particular, it participates in forming joint cartilages, ligaments and tendons. After a glucosamine molecule is assimilated in the digestive tract it is transported to a cartilage and other tissues where it is transformed into the components required by the organism. So chitosan is beneficial for restoring the cartilage tissue at joint disorders of any kind, including arthritis and arthrosis.
The effect of restoring joints and regenerating the connective tissue is significantly amplified by the ability of the chitosan oligosaccharides to augment the digestion of vitamins and enhance their intestinal absorption. First of all it is true for vitamin C, since it is indispensable in forming the main connective tissue protein, collagen. In this way, with the chitosan intake by the organism a synergetic effect is attained: pains are attenuated, mobility is improved and the structure of ligaments, bones and joints gets restored.
8. Preventing gout.The protein excess in the diet can lead to disruptions of the purine metabolism in the organism, formation of the surplus uric acid and to gout attacks. Chitosan is able to affect the uric acid metabolism by lowering its content in the organism.
Thanks to such versatile action of chitosan its popularity in the world is increasing exponentially. Each year this substance indispensable in medicine and other fields attracts closer and closer attention of researchers, business people and even politicians who dub chitosan the "substance of the 21st century" opening up unlimited prospects for the future science.
Due to its unique radiation containment properties chitosan has got a strategic significance. It is widely used at the nuclear fuel disposal, both in the military and civilian fields. Widely publicized was the sea burial operation of the Soviet Komsomolets submarine that had sunk in the 1980's in the Barents Sea. The operation was a success and it surpassed all expectations: the inter-hull space of the vessel was filled with the gel-like chitosan mass that completely eradicated all radiation and, experts maintain, will reliably block any radiation discharges into the atmosphere for hundreds of years to come.
Chitosan is being studied in 15 countries. At present over 70 fields for its practical use are already known with most important of them being bioengineering, environmental protection, food industry, medicine, cosmetics and agriculture.
There have been numerous international conferences on the chitin and chitosan research in the last 27 years: in the US (1977), Japan (1982), Italy (1985), Norway (1988), once again the US (1991), Poland (1994) and France (1997). In Russia they held 7 scientific forums on the subject: in Vladivostok (1983), Murmansk (1987), Moscow (1991, 1995, 1999, and 2001) and St. Petersburg (2003).